Ans.) when two waves of same frequency and amplitude are travelling through a medium with the same speed but in opposite direction superimpose over each other to form a new(resultant) wave this is known as stationary waves .resultant wave does not seems to be moving .no net flow of energy is seen
what is meant by superposition ?
Ans.) when one or more waves moving in same direction and medium pass through each other combine to form a single wave without any disturbance in its energy. this single wave can be expressed as sum of one or more waves .
Y=y1+y2+... and so on .
what is meant by nodes and how are they formed ?
Ans.) node it is a point on the standing wave where the wave has minimum (zero) amplitude. they are formed due to destructive interface
for example : in a vibrating guitar string, the ends of the string arenodes.
what is meant by anti nodes and how are hey formed ?
Ans.) anti nodes are formed on the standing waves where the wave has maximum amplitude .They are formed due to the constructive interface .
NODES are integral multiples of "HALF OF WAVELENGTHS"
what is the standard frequency in India ?
Ans.) the standard frequency in India is 50HZ .
why do we use 50HZ as standard frequency ?
Ans.) it is the standard frequency of India .
why do we use bulb in his setup ?
Ans.) the purpose of the 50 watts bulb in experiment setup is it detects the frequency with which ac is coming and if it crosses more than standard then the bulb will fuse .if the value is less than standard then it will work without any problem .
what is the rating of bulb in this experiment ?
Ans.) 50 watts
what are the different types of masses we use in experiment ? ans.)10,20,30grams
1.) What are Newton rings ?
Ans.) Dark and bright rings ar formed due to the presence of air film when Plano convex lens is placed on glass plate .
2.) How are Newton's rings formed ?
Ans.) They are formed due to the result of interface between light wave reflected from upper and lower surface of the air film developed between the convex surface of Plano convex lens and Plano glass plate .
3.) What is the function of 45 inclined glass plane in experiment setup ?
Ans.) It turns the light Ray coming from an external source to 90° and so the Ray fall normal on the Plano convex lens .
4.) Why rings get closer as their order increase ?
Ans.) The diameter of the dark frings is directly proportional to the square root of natural numbers .while bright rings are directly proportional to the square root of odd numbers .hence they don't increase at the same rate .
5.) What happens if we us plane glass in experiment setup instead of convex lens ?ans.) The shape of rings will be irregular…
what is meant by semiconductor ?Ans.) It is a substance whose properties lie in between conductor and insulators i.e at high temperatures it act as conductor and at low temperature it acts as insulator .the conductivity range of this substance lies in between 10-6 to 104 (W-m) .example :2. what is meant by conductors ?Ans.) conductors are the substance which allows electricity through them ex :-silver,copper etc3.)what is meant by insulators ?Ans.) insulators are the substance which does not allow current to flow through it ex :diamond,graphite .4.) What is the difference in between insulators and conductors ?Ans.) The main difference in between insulators and conductors arises in terms of electrical behavior .the reason for the difference in electrical behavior of conductors and insulators are due to
the difference between their electronic structures . in conductors free electrons are more and in insulators all electrons are tightly packed . 5.) what is band gap and its units? Ans.)…